End of Term Annotated Bibliography

Over the course of my research this semester, I’ve accumulated several scholarly sources regarding various aspects of the waterfall experience. The list below comprises my 20 most pertinent sources:

Appleton, Jay. The Experience of Landscape. Rev. ed. Chichester; New York: Wiley, 1996.

This book describes a new theoretical approach to landscape aesthetics including habitat and project-refuge theory.

Bowen Jr. Blair, “The Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area: The Act, Its Genesis and Legislative History,” Environmental Law 17, no. 4 (Summer 1987): 863-970

This article examines several aspects regarding the creation of The Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area Act including its contents, why it was created, and its legislative history.

Burns, Robert. 2011. “Columbia River Gorge Vital Signs Indicators Resident and Visitor Study.” 

This study investigated people’s perceptions of the qualities of the Columbia River Gorge, including its waterfalls. Burns wanted specifically to identify perceptions of crowding, reasons for visitation, quality of conditions and how crowds impact their experience.  His study will be helpful for connecting experience with access.

Cannas, Rita; University of Bologna. “An Overview of Tourism Seasonality: Key Concepts and Policies; An Overview of Tourism Seasonality: Key Concepts and Policies.” 3, no. 5 (2012): 40-58.

In this article, Cannas explores the main characteristics of tourism seasonality and how destinations are effected by this phenomenon. Through her discussion, she explores causes, impacts, spatiality and temporality, measurements. Fluctuating climate conditions can limit visitation, hinder a tourist’s experience, and have negative impacts on local businesses that rely on tourist income. She also touches on how climate change will further exacerbate seasonality issues.

Daniel, T., Boster, Ron S, United States, & Rocky Mountain Forest Range Experiment Station. (1976). Measuring landscape aesthetics: The scenic beauty estimation method. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station.

This study provides a thorough investigation of the Scenic Beauty Estimation Method and how it measures aesthetic preferences for alternative management practices.

Hudson, Brian J. “Best after rain: Waterfall discharge and the tourist experience.” Tourism Geographies 4, no. 4 (2002): 440-456.

In this article, Hudson examines the relationship between waterfall discharge and visitor experience. He also explains how waterfalls in tourist media are usually photographed at full flow – never dry or trickling. Although such images encourage visitation, they can also distort expectations and lead to disappointment when a waterfall is flowing much lower than advertised in pictures.

Hudson, B.J. “The Experience of Waterfalls.” Australian Geographical Studies 38, no. 1 (2000): 71-84.

Hudson’s paper describes the appeal of waterfalls through various theoretical approaches including the picturesque and sublime as well as project-refuge. While no single theory can explain the appeal of waterfalls, this paper stresses the importance of utilizing several conceptual frameworks to fully understand how people respond to the presence of a waterfall.

Hudson, Brian J. “Waterfalls, Tourism and Landscape.” Geography 91, no. 1 (2006): 3-12.

This article draws the interesting comparison between tourist “attraction” and “destination.” He remarks on the notion that many waterfalls are attractions but only a select few can be considered destinations by themselves. He also discusses the historic role of waterfalls in tourism and how developing a waterfall area for the sake of easier access can lead to an inauthentic waterfall experience.

Hudson, Brian J. Waterfall. RB-Earth. London: Reaktion Books, 2012.

Brian J. Hudson’s Waterfall contains a wealth of information regarding the role of waterfalls in nature and culture. This book contains sections on waterfall geology, tourist development, crowding impacts and evolving perceptions of waterfalls throughout history. Despite lacking a situated context, this book contains lots of information for my background.

Lamb, Michael P., and William E. Dietrich. 2009. “The persistence of waterfalls in fractured rock.” GSA Bulletin 121 (7-8): 1123–34

This article discusses knickpoint propagation and erosion, creating distinct boundaries between adjusting and relict topography.  Rates of propagation depend on rock strength, rock type, and layering. In particular, Lamb also examines erosion patterns at waterfalls in the Pacific Northwest and how waterfall induced toppling shapes canyon head walls as well as nearby terrain.

Löfgren, Orvar. On Holiday: A History of Vacationing. California Studies in Critical Human Geography ; 6. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.

In this book, Lofgren investigates “elsewhereness” as a human pursuit regarding what people search for in their travel destinations. He also shares extensive historical background regarding eighteenth-century pioneers of tourism and how two centuries of “learning to be a tourist” has shaped methods of travel.

Manning, R. E., & Freimund, W. A. (2004). Use of visual research methods to measure standards of quality for parks and outdoor recreation. Journal of Leisure Research, 36(4), 557-579.

This source provides a detailed description on how visual research methods have been utilized for standards of quality in outdoor spaces. Manning also shares a variety of methods involved in monitoring visitor’s experiences at a certain site.

Man, Martin. “The Legacy of The English Picturesque In The Tourist Photography of Instagram.” THE VASSAR COLLEGE JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY (2016): 2.

This paper shares an analysis of modern landscape tourist photography exemplified by photos shown on the image-sharing platform of Instagram. These photos are examined under the frame work of the English picturesque to discover what natural sites tourists find most notable.

Panik, M.. 2012. Statistical Inference: A Short Course. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.

This book contains an overview on statistical inference and how to make judgments of the likelihood that an observed difference between groups is dependable or one that might have happened by chance. It also contains information on how to determine causation and correlation.

Price, Uvedale. An Essay on the Picturesque, as Compared with the Sublime and the Beautiful; And, on the Use of Studying Pictures, for the Purpose of Improving Real Landscape, by Uvedale Price, Esq. London: Printed for J. Robson, 1794.

In this essay, Uvedale notes how the picturesque differs from the sublime and beautiful as picturesque scenes present a desired view that can differ greatly from a desired experience. Photography analysis is used for the purpose of improving the scenic beauty of valued landscapes like rivers or waterfalls. This is with regards to lessening the differences between how photos look and how landscapes truly appear in person.

Plumb, G. (1998). A waterfall lover’s guide to the Pacific Northwest : Where to find hundreds of spectacular waterfalls in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho (3rd ed.). Seattle, WA: The Mountaineers.

This book has encyclopedic information on and directions to hundreds of waterfalls across the Pacific Northwest including the Columbia River Gorge. I plan to use this book to compare its renderings of waterfalls to what people actually experience at the aforementioned falls firsthand.

The Columbia River Gorge Commission – Management Plan and Contact: http://www.gorgecommission.org/management-plan/plan/

The management plan provides an overview of land use, protection standards, non-regulatory programs and actions taken to maintain the Gorge’s myriad of resources. This includes the role of government and local agencies in implementing discussed strategies. This plan will prove useful with regards to understanding how the area is managed under the conditions of tourism. It will also provide insights into safety standards and or concerns with the construction of access infrastructure like roads or trails near popular waterfalls.

Stachelrodt, Chris. 1971. “A Geomorphic Study of Waterfalls and Basalt Jointing in the Columbia River Gorge.”

This short study examines how basalt jointing shapes the appearance of waterfalls in the Columbia River Gorge. He notes how the wide variety of waterfalls in the gorge are due to diversity in cooling rates among different forms of basalt (columnar, pillow, etc.). 

Toedtemeier, Terry., Laursen, John, and Northwest Photography Archive, Publisher. Wild Beauty: Photographs of the Columbia River Gorge, 1867-1957. Northwest Photography Series; 1. Portland, Or. : Corvallis, Or.: Northwest Photography Archive; Oregon State University Press, 2008.

Apart from containing a thorough overview of the geologic and human history of the Gorge, this book contains several old waterfall photos in a variety of contexts. Many of the photographs contain descriptions and historical details which will be useful for my background. The ways photographers depicted waterfalls here in the late 19th century compared to how they are shown now will aid in tracing both human perceptions of waterfalls and the extent to which these places have been developed.

USFS. “Fire Management.” Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area – Fire Management.

USFS. “About the Forest.” Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area – Our Mission.

The two sources above explain fire management in the Columbia River Gorge and the aims of the National Scenic Area. They state how the purpose of the Columbia River Gorge National scenic area is to “protect and provide for the enhancement of the scenic, cultural, recreational and natural resources of the Gorge.” In Fire Management, the USFS describes how the Eagle Creek Fire limited access to many areas of the gorge and was hard to contain due to steep topography. They also discuss rehabilitation efforts and fire suppression.




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